Ramunė Briedienė. Lietuvių vaikai tremtyje: vaikų gelbėjimo ekspedicijos



Šio darbo tikslas – apžvelgti tremtinių vaikų gelbėjimo ekspedicijas, jų organizavimą, vaikų atrankos kriterijus, atskleisti gelbėtojų pastangas parvežti į Lietuvą kuo daugiau vaikų. Straipsnyje mėginama nušviesti, kaip klostėsi vaikų likimai Lietuvoje. (TĘSINYS ŽURNALE „GENOCIDAS IR REZISTENCIJA“)


Lithuanian Children in Exile: Expeditions to Rescue Children


Illegitimacy of deportations of 1941 were understood even by some USSR leaders who initiated repatriation of orphans. The beginnings of rescue expeditions lies in the requests of relatives addressed to the Chairman of the Presidium of the USSR SS (Supreme Soviet) Justas Paleckis and some other influential persons. The lists of children to be repatriated were confirmed by the Chairman of the Presidium of the USSR SS Justas Paleckis or the Deputy Minister of Education Jonas Šalkauskas. There were also enlightened persons resolved to bring the children back: Marcelinas Ignatavičius, Petras Monstavičius, Jonas Bulota, Ona Jakubėnaitė, Zakarevičius and Kuznecova. They had to overcome different difficulties: problematic communication, unfavorable weather conditions, long formalities, determinant fights with exile authorities, many of whom did not regarded resolutions of the Presidium of the USSR SS. As a result of those obstructions, expeditions would last two or three months. Moreover, at any moment there wasalso a danger of the NKVD (MVD) roadblocks and examination of papers; some repatriations were organized illegally as well. Formally, there was a permission to repatriate only minors and complete orphans. However, the expedition leaders did not respect this order, their aim was to bring back as many Lithuanian children as possible. Therefore, they would fudge cases, birth dates and use other illegal ways to bring the children back. Thanks to the rescuers’ resourcefulness, persistence and readiness to risk, twice as many children as it had been recommended were brought back to Lithuania.

In 1946, five rescue expeditions were organized (two to Komia, one to Yakutia, Altaj, Ural regions each) during which about 240 children were returned to Lithuania. Nonetheless, not everybody’s further fate after return to Lithuania shaped well. There were ones who did not have any place to shelter, they had adaptation difficulties and were subjected to constant persecutions by MGB. Those who returned could again be deported and some were. A lot depended on conditions of return (illegally or being majors and non orphans), on sgeneral illegitimate environment in Lithuania, and mass terror.

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I PRADZIAAtnaujinta: 2004-02-02
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